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Monday 6th July

Good afternoon Y4

You have been investigating circuits and the different parts required to make a circuit. One of those parts which is very important is the switch.

There are lots of different kinds of switches used for different purposes. 

switch is something that changes the flow of an electrical circuit

The most common kind of switch is something (for example a railroad switch) which can be taken off one course and put onto another. The term "switch" usually means electrical power.

In applications where more than one switch is needed, (i.e. a telephone service) mechanical switches have been replaced by electronic switches which can be controlled automatically.

The switch is known as a gate.

The word 'switch' can also mean to change between two things. For example, on a railway line sometimes the track can split into two different tracks. If the train is travelling on one line and changes over to the other, it has just done a switch. 

 

Inside a light switch
Complete circuit with switch closed
A toggle switch in the on position

I would like you to have a go at designing and if possible, making your own switch. 

If we were in school, we would be using the same materials as shown in the following PowerPoint, but you would be provided with the batteries, bulbs or motors and electric cables.

 

Unfortunately, as you may not have anything similar to this at home, you will find it difficult to test your switch.

However, you can still design and make a switch. Do take photographs and send them to me so I can post them on our Science page.

After the PowerPoint, I have included a link to, 'Enn and Gee's World of Energy'.

A science website for children. 

 

At the end is a YouTube video about how to make a burglar alarm to 'ptotect' your room. The switch required to make the circuit works on the same principle. 

 

Making Switches

Alarming Switches

Let Mr. O show you how a simple electric circuit and a special switch you build can be used to create an alarm to protect your room from instruders (aka siblings)

Monday 29th June

Hello again Y4 laugh

 

This week we are focussing on symbols used within a circuit diagram.

 

A circuit always has a battery (cell) but it can also contain other electrical components, such as bulbs, buzzers and motors.

When drawing circuit diagrams, rather than drawing detailed components, we use simple symbols to represent the different components.

 

 

Click on the link to watch the programme and then have a go at completing the circuit symbols activity. yes

Next week we will be looking at switches in a circuit. smiley

Monday 22nd June

Good morning Y4,  smiley

I hope you are all rested after the weekend?

Any photographs you may want to send, or queries, please contact me Mrs Afford;

affordj@sps.sefton.schools

 

You have been looking at how to build a circuit and what you need to do this. This week we are going to recap on building a circuit, and looking at how to make changes to a circuit.

Remember, the circuit must be closed for it to work!

 

However, first we are going to look at how to increase the power in a circuit to make the bulb brighter and so you can add more bulbs to the circuit. This is one way to make a change to a circuit.

 

Power is a measure of how fast electrical energy is turned into another type of electrical energy, such as heat or light.

 

You can make bulbs brighter by adding more batteries to a circuit. This adds more electrical energy.

Watch this clip below to find out about 'What is Power?'

 

When I was little all Christmas tree lights were on a series circuit. This meant that every year, once the decorations were brought out, the first thing we did was check that the lights still worked. Ask your parents wink  I'm sure they will remember.

 

Look at this link to see the different types of bulbs we have now and which ones are currently used for tree lights. 

 

Before you read about bulbs, make a prediction as to which bulb it is.

Was your prediction correct? yes 

 

Circuits - What do you remember?

Electricity can flow through the components in a complete electrical circuit.

A circuit always needs a power source, such as a battery, with wires connected to both the positive (+) and negative (-) ends.

A battery is made from a collection of cells connected together.

A circuit can also contain other electrical components, such as bulbs, buzzers or motors, which allow electricity to pass through.

 

Electricity will only travel around a circuit that is complete. That means it has no gaps.

You can use a switch in a circuit to create a gap in a circuit. This can be used to switch it on and off.

 

When a switch is open (off), there is a gap in the circuit.

Therefore electricity cannot travel around the circuit.

 

When a switch is closed (on), it makes the circuit complete.

This means the electricity can travel around the circuit.

 

Simple Circuit Diagrams

Same circuit with pictures and with symbols
Circuit with a switch
Circuit symbols

Good morning Year 4!

 

Last week we looked at building circuits. To work, a closed circuit needed to be connected to both the positive and negative end of a battery by wires, with any other items such as bulbs or motors also connected by wires in a circuit.

 

This week we are going to look at conductors and insulators.

 

A conductor is a material that allows electricity to pass through it. Metals are usually good conductors, which is why they are used inside wires.

 

An insulator is a material that blocks electricity and doesn't allow it to pass through. Plastics are usually good insulators, which is why they are used to cover the wires so we can touch them without getting an electric shock!

The guide below has some more information.

Since we are not in school, we will be investigating which materials will make a complete circuit by conducting electricity (in other words, acting as a wire) online instead! These two websites let you try different materials to create a circuit. See what happens!

If you have batteries and wires at home you might want to set up an investigation with an adult to see which materials conduct electricity.

 

HEALTH AND SAFETY:

I'm sure I don't need to say this, but do not investigate using any plugs or mains electricity, that would be very dangerous!

Always ask an adult before doing any Science experiments at home and they will help you make it safe.

 

Have fun investigating, either online or in real life! smiley

Monday 15th June

Hello everyone and welcome back to our online Science Lab!

 

Last week we looked at different electrical appliances and whether they used battery power or mains power

 

Today we are going to look at electrical circuits and how they are made. Unfortunately we aren't in school, so unless you have wires, bulbs and batteries at home you probably won't be able to build your own circuits, but I have found some websites where you can experiment building electrical circuits.

An electrical circuit must be closed to work. That means all of the components (parts) joined together by wires with no gaps. It also means both sides of the battery need to be connected.

 

Have you ever noticed a battery has different ends? One is called positive and it is shown by a + and has the bump. The other is negative with a - and is flat. Perhaps you have some batteries at home you could look at?

 

Batteries are a bit like magnets with two ends.

 

This video explains how electricity and magnets are connected!

Did anyone else get a bit scared watching that video? I did! 

 

Your task today is to use the circuit builders above to have a play at building your own circuits!

 

This powerpoint might be a useful starting point. I have attached the worksheet connected to the powerpoint if you would like to try out those circuits on the online builder!

 

If you want to get ahead for our upcoming lessons, you might find this link interesting!

Monday 8th June

Good morning Year 4!

 

Last week we looked at how electricity is made, usually in power stations. These power stations are often fuelled by non-renewable fossil fuels, but there are renewable sources as well like solar panels, wind and tidal power stations

 

This week we are going to look at how the things we use get their electricity. Do they get it from batteries, or from the mains (plugging into the wall)?

 

Think of some of the things you have in your house that run on electricity. Imagine if we had to plug everything into the wall all of the time...wouldn't that be annoying?! Imagine something like a TV remote or tablet that had to stay plugged in all the time! (Guess what - phones used to be attached to the wall like that! Ask your parents what it was like!)

 

Batteries help us to move electrical appliances around, but they aren't big or powerful enough to power lots of electrical things, and they can run out. That's why mains electricity is still so useful.

Go through the powerpoint to find out more.

 

Use the appliance cards linked below to help you with your task today. You need to sort the different objects depending on whether they:

 

1) use electricity or not

2) use batteries

3) use mains electricity

4) or if they can use both!

 

It is up to you how you would like to organise and sort them, but I have attached a venn diagram as a suggestion.

(If you are working on an iPad, it may be easier to save the appliance cards into your photo album then write your answers directly onto the sheet in the 'mark up' menu, rather than trying to sort them!)

 

Maybe you could add some more objects from around your house into the correct section? 

As we mentioned last week, keeping safe around electrical items is so important!

 

Can you solve this interactive activity to find all of the possible dangers in this house full of electrical appliances?

Or if you would rather use a paper version:

Monday 1st June

Good morning all you incredible scientists in Year 4, welcome back to our online laboratory! 

Our new topic is electricity!

 

What do you know about electricity already? Probably more than you think! Discuss with somebody at home what you already think you know about electricity. What uses electricity?

 

You may want to use the questions on the mind map sheet to get you started.

You might want to do an electricity inventory of your house - how many things can you find that use electricity? (SAFETY FIRST: please don't touch any plugs or electrical items unless an adult says that it is safe!)

 

But where does electricity come from? How is it created? 

 

This powerpoint and video will help to explain.

Power Stations & The National Grid | Electricity | Physics | FuseSchool

Your task today is to explain how electricity is generated (made).

 

You can either:

explain about lots of different types of electricity generation in a little bit of detail, or

explain about one or two in lots of detail.

 

How you choose to explain this is up to you! Choose whichever option suits you (and what resources or technology you have access to today) best.

 

Some ideas are:

  • designing an informational poster or leaflet
  • creating an explanation video/interview to go on TV/radio
  • writing your ideas on the worksheet below
  • using Purple Mash to create a book
  • using a program like iMovie to create a film
  • or any other way you think of that would help someone understand how electricity is made!

 

Have fun!

Monday 18th May

Happy Monday Year 4!

 

Today we are going to be looking at how sounds travel over distances. 

 

We know that sounds are caused by particles vibrating, so the way sounds travel over distances is these particles bump into each other to create a wave - a sound wave!

 

Watch the video below and look through the Powerpoint for more information.

The Science of the String Phone!

You might want to have a go at making your own string telephone - maybe ask an adult to help you with it, especially if you are putting holes in things!

Experiment with what sorts of sounds travel better or further across a distance. Do sounds travel better outside? In a bathroom where it might echo more? Can you hear sounds better through a wall or a door? Can you hear higher sounds better from a distance, or lower sounds? Louder or quieter? Why do you think this is?

 

As always, if you are making lots of noise, make sure it is not disturbing any parents or siblings who might be doing important things around the house!

 

** Also don't forget about the music video that Miss Samuels is making! You can find the details on the main homework page under the 'Beatles Music Video' star, or on the music tab! **

Monday 4th May

Welcome back to Science and our learning about 'Sound'.

 

So far we have learnt that sounds are caused by vibrations of particles. The bigger the vibration, the louder the sound. But how do we hear sounds?

 

With our ears of course! But how do ears work? 

 

Watch the video below to find out! (There is a lot of new vocabulary in this video, so you may want to watch it more than once.)

How the Ears Work - Nemours KidsHealth

Learn how the ears work in this short video from Nemours KidsHealth: The ears collect sounds and turn them into messages for the brain to interpret. They als...

So your ear is a very complex system - did you know there was so much going on inside? This is why it is very important to not stick things in your ears in case you damage all the important things in there!

 

Here are some websites with a bit more information:

Can you label all the parts of the human ear? How many can you remember without checking?

 

You can do this task by printing the sheets and writing by hand, or by editing them on the computer or tablet, or by copying the image into a program like Microsoft OneNote to add voice notes.

Below I have linked a selection of experiments, investigations and activities related to sound that you can try at home! You might not be able to do all of them and you may need to ask an adult to help you - I'm sure you'll find the right activity for you.

 

Enjoy experimenting!

Thank you to all of you who have sent me photos and videos of your science experiments (school work and your own investigations!)

 

Please send me photos of what you find out today! - Miss Byrne

Monday 27th April

Today we will be learning about the volume of sounds. Some sounds are loud and some are quiet. We measure the volume of a sound in decibels.

 

We already know that sound is caused by something vibrating. The bigger the vibration, the louder the sound! 

 

Because of the way particles are arranged in solids, sounds travel faster and louder through them. This is because the particles bump into each other more because they are so close to each other! Sounds don't travel as fast or loudly through air (gases) even though that is how we hear most sounds.

Reorder these stages from when a vibration occurs to when we hear the sound.

Your task is to explain how sounds have different volumes. You will need to use key scientific vocabulary like vibration, louder, quieter, decibel, particles, solid, liquid, gas, ear.

 

The worksheet is designed for you to produce a role play or video for a children's tv show, but if you would rather do it as a poster that is absolutely fine! You could do it online using tools like Purple Mash, or on paper away from your computer. 

 

Don't forget to experiment with creating different sounds with different volumes around your home!

Here are some extra videos exploring decibels (how we measure sound.)

How loud is too loud?

How can volume cause hearing loss? And what are decibels? Loud noises can damage the tiny hairs inside the inner ear that send messages to the brain. Profess...

Loudness Comparison in Decibels. Mariana Everest Comparison 1

Loudness Comparison in Decibels.

Monday 20th April

Welcome to our brand new Science topic:

 

Sound.

 

You can find the Knowledge Organiser for this unit on the 'Other Subjects' page.

 

Before opening the powerpoint, let's think about what we already know about 'sound'. Perhaps you have some answers and questions already? Use the Mind Map below to start thinking about 'sound'.

Sound is caused by VIBRATIONS, and the following powerpoint and video clips help to explain what this means.

When something moves, it vibrates. This movement causes the sound that we hear! 

 

You have two tasks today.

 

1) Your first activity is a Sound Survey. Go around your house and see what sounds you can hear. Is it loud or quiet? High or low? Do you notice anything about a knock on a table if you are standing up and a knock on the table if you have your ear on the table? Are noises different depending on how close you are to them? Investigate the different sounds in your house - be careful not to make too much noise while you do this!

2) Your second activity - that you may need to ask an adult to help with - is to create a musical instrument at home! Perhaps you will choose a string instrument, or maybe a wind instrument, or the old favourite of a percussion instrument! Here are some ideas of the sorts of things you could use to make your own sounds.

Please remember the other people in your house while you investigate sounds and don't disturb anyone trying to work or sleep! 

 

If you ask nicely, maybe some brothers and sisters could form a band with you? As always, please send in photos of your work so we can share and celebrate! smiley

 

Have fun!

 

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Monday 30th March

Watch this video to remind you of the stages involved in the water cycle!

The Water Cycle

Your task is to use 2Create a Story on Purple Mash to create your own story about a water droplet.

 

Imagine you are a water droplet - what happens to you during one day? 

 

Perhaps you start off in a cloud, then fall to the ground as rain (precipitation) . Next you could trickle down a river into the ocean. Or perhaps you fall into a puddle and an animal drinks you! Maybe you end up in the sewer system? (Yuck!) 

 

After that, maybe you start to get warmer in the sun so evaporate as water vapour. Eventually you could condense into a water droplet in a cloud again to end your day the way you started.

 

There are lots of different things that could happen to you during your adventures as a water droplet! Try to use scientific language in your story so it is accurate as well as exciting. You can find the important scientific vocabulary on the picture below. 

 

Good luck! 

Bonus challenge activity!

 

If you like arts and crafts and have some materials hanging around, you might enjoy this project!

How To Make A 3D Water Cycle Model!

Monday 23rd March

Here are some Water Cycle related activities:

 

[HINT: Get an adult to help you to boil some water (use a kettle or a saucepan) to see the water cycle in action! Try placing the steam rising upwards near something cold like a mirror or a window...investigate what happens!]

Fun experiments you could try at home!

Please ask an adult for help with these!

Amazing Science Experiments That You Can Do At Home Cool Science Experiments (Top 10)

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