Respect and Service
Year 6 History Ambassadors visit the church Welcome In.
They had a lovely time finding about memories of church and school.
Geography and History Fieldwork
in the park.
The skills and tasks we used in this field work link to our
Geography = We were looking at the facilities and condition of the park area. We used a questionnaire to find out what visitors to the park thought about it. Mostly they loved it! This meant that we were talking to the public and gathering data: a process that helps us to appreciate our local area.
History = We were looking at how much the park has changed since it opened in 1913. At first glance we thought it had changed a lot but when we used the information boards and looked at individual areas we discovered that a lot of the park is very similar to one hundred years ago. This meant that we were looking more closely at our local area and understanding it better.
Back at school we will produce reports on what we found, evaluate our findings and make recommendations on how to improve the area in future.
Rule of Law
Learning about road safety in whole school worship
The Maya Treasure Escape Room Challenge
Year 6 demonstrated great team work skills…which of course help to develop our values of respect and tolerance.
They were also learning about another culture whilst doing this! History Ambassadors lead the tasks and supported the other pupils…again showing respect and citizenship.
Learning about how people lived in other eras helps us to appreciate the values we have now.
Year 3 got to meet a Roman soldier!
Year 6 News Champions and History Ambassadors lead class worship around the school about the
British and Christian Value of Respect
We looked at special religious buildings. First we looked at Notre Dame and the fire there over Easter.
Then we looked at the religious buildings used by Muslims, Jews, Hindus and Sikhs.
British Values of mutual respect and tolerance
come from helping each other and sharing what we know.
History Ambassadors continue to act as Chronology Buddies with younger children to help them develop a better understanding of history and so appreciate the society and values we have today.
News Champions visit more classes!
This time we focussed on our Christian value of Service and linked it to news stories about how to look after our planet. We used Newsround videos about the damage caused by single use plastic items and non biodegradable glitter.
This also helps us develop our British Values as we learn more about the world around us and
how to be better citizens within it.
Year 6 History Ambassadors and News Champions help others worship and learn.
Wondering Wednesday got us to think about
Rule of Law, Respect and our Individual Liberty…Should schools be car free zones?
We celebrated being part of The Commonwealth family with a special worship time led by our News Champions from Year 6.
World Book Day
Loving reading and sharing our favourite stories will help us be better learners and better able to take an active part in our communities
Helping each other learn helps our community.
Year History Ambassadors acted as experts for their class.
They answered questions and gave support in our group work.
The School Council…our democracy and mutual respect in action
Go Orange for Muscular Dystrophy
We led an assembly to explain about this and to encourage children to raise money to help our community.
We watched a video about one of our pupils and his family.
Hands on History Exhibition
Practising our values of service and citizenship, Year 6 History Ambassadors hosted an exhibition for our community about our local history. We discussed their memories of school days and what Southport used to be like when they were young.
Year 6 spread the word about British values by delivering class worship sessions to Y1-6 in which pupils considered what each of the four main values means and how they could be a better citizen
To be great citizens in our democracy we need to be able to express our opinions clearly.
Here is a display about our pupil voice.
Year 6 led a whole school worship about wisdom and justice…linking these Christian Values to our British Values
We used the example of Charles Dickens, Elizabeth Fry and Florence Nightingale as people who were wise enough to act when they saw that things were unfair. Fry and Nightingale were devout Christians who did what God told them to do even though it was not easy for them. They helped make our country a fairer and better place. We are free in this country to make lots of choices. Because we live in a democracy we have the right to give our opinions and try to change things…just like they did. Thank you to our volunteers who worked hard on this in their own time…great role models for our younger children.
Helping each other...mutual respect
Year 6 History Ambassadors help run History Club for Year 3.
They staff the library and help out with games and activities.
Classes are looking at different Christian values this term. For example Year 4 and 6 are looking at wisdom and
Year 2 and 5 are looking at courage.
Below are some photos of Year 6 getting ready to lead a class and whole school worship on wisdom.
They have linked it to British Values.
We need to use our freedom wisely…making good choices…ones that make our communities better places.
Sometimes this takes courage.
We learned about how Florence Nightingale and Elizabeth Fry both had to be brave to follow God and change what they thought was wrong at the time they lived.
Our installation to commemorate the sacrifices made by the RAF in protecting our way of life
Raising money for charity and learning how to budget to make money!
Year 6 History Ambassadors have taken the lead in making money for charity and for our history club.
They have designed cards, worked out the costs in producing them, worked as a team to produce them and set a price to ensure they raise money from them (or at least meet their costs!) This shows the values of mutual respect and citizenship. Here is a photo of some of the designs.
Year 6 preparing to teach and teaching the younger classes about topics in history. Enjoying the rights of our free country is great but we also have responsibilities to each other too!
See below for Year 6 leading class worship about the British Value of Individual liberty.
They took sessions in Years 2, 3, 4 and 5
Are we a throwaway society?
We are free to make choices but do we always make the right ones?
Should we take more care with what we use and throw away?
God made humans to look after this wonderful planet.
What would Jesus do?
Pupils thought about throwing away less, especially single use plastic items like straws and water bottles.
More learning from our church community: mutual respect.
Year 6 History Ambassadors visit the church with Mr Carver to learn more about it.
We respect others. We learn from others. Here is one of our grandmothers telling us about her family history. It involved refugees and RAF pilots. Older people have lots they can tell us. It helps us understand who we are if we know about our family histories.
The Southport Sleuth competition encouraged children to talk to their relatives and learn about the history of their hometown. They had to be independent and work as detectives to find out about the past.
Below are the winners from across the different year groups as well as our display board.
Year 6 History Ambassadors practise some of the skills of citizenship. Here they take a lead and share what they know with younger pupils.
Here they are as Ancient Greeks helping Year 4 with their history unit.
Class worship links to our British Values
We take responsibility and work as a team to lead the rest of the class and our parents in activities and reflections
Here are Year 6 thinking about how The Bible guides us to treat each other.....
Their theme was love and they used John 13:34
( a new commandment I give you...that you love one another as I have loved you...)
and the film A Wrinkle in Time
( where the love of a sister for a brother defeated evil)
as their focal points.
Parliament Week has begun!
Year 6 will demonstrate a debate for the school.
All classes will choose activities to develop our awareness of how our democracy works.
Year 6 Parliament Week debates
We investigated our Class worship theme of ‘It’s not fair!’
We did this by exploring child labour in the 19th century and its parallels today.
It was only because people saw what was happening and said ‘It’s not fair!’ AND did something about it that we have better lives today.
We practised dramatic speeches calling for an end to child labour.
We also had mini debates about a range of topics e.g.
Should people have to go to church at least once over Christmas?
Should people be allowed to spend whatever they like on their pets?
Should shops be allowed to sell Christmas items before December?
Reception got busy learning about democracy by voting
for favourite books
St Philip's In London for remembrance 2018
Our wreath was placed at The Cenotaph as part of The Nation's Thank You.
Our Unremembered photo was part of a billboard display.
Our RAF100 plane templates are on show until January at RAF Hendon
with one of them chosen for the exhibition poster.
See the London PowerPoint below
See below for photos
Our RAF100 plane templates are being installed at RAF Hendon in London ready
for remembrance this week.
We were given names of Scottish service men and women from World War One. You can see some of them in the pictures below.
Our poppy cascade is now on show!
All children and staff have now made a remembrance poppy
under the guidance of Mrs Rothwell.
Here are some of the children remembering a local war hero from the King's Liverpool Regiment
Private E W Jones who died 18th May 1918
Our poppy installation includes the names of more than
400 soldiers who served in World War One
whose names are on the memorials in our church.
Year 6 learning about their local environment....its history and legacies.
Learning about our town's history helps us to appreciate and value it more.
Learning about local heroes like Frank Hampson and the lifeboat crews can inspire us.
Taking time out to honour those who have served in war is an important part of valuing our democratic values.
We are coming to the end of our World War One centenary commemorations.
The photo below shows the school on Southport beach with other Sefton schools back in 2014, forming a giant remembrance poppy. We all got soaked that day. Now we are about to complete our poppy cascades, RAF planes and Unremembered projects. Watch this space for photos!
Here are some photos of our exhibition to commemorate the events of 100 years ago
The formation of the RAF
The Unremembered from the Labour Corps
Women getting the vote for the first time
And how these have contributed to the British values we have today which underpin our way of life today
Presenting our remembrance wreath to our church family.
See the photo below
History Ambassadors from last year and this have been cutting out felt flowers to create wreaths for our school and church. The multi coloured flowers are to remember the range of different people who served in different ways during World War One. Not all who served were soldiers. Many were women who worked as nurses or in munitions factories. Many were part of the Labour Corps who did work that enabled soldiers to do their job e.g. building roads and ensuring supplies were in the right place and the right time. Many people came from all over our empire to help. There were people from India and Nepal as well as countries in Africa. There were of course Christians but also Muslims, Hindus and Jews who served.
Remembrance = honouring those who served to protect our values
democracy....individual liberty...rule of law...respect
Practising our democratic skills of debate...in Geography
How far should we protect the rainforests?
Serving our community and showing mutual respect
Year 6 History Ambassadors visit Welcome In...see the photos below
On Wednesday 3rd October, six of us from Year 6 went to the church Welcome In.
We have been making a new remembrance wreath to share with the church and we presented it to them. We thought ahead what questions we would like to ask so that we had some idea what we would find out about.
We really enjoyed our time with people who could tell us so much.
Here are a few things that we learned...
One man showed us his father’s medals from World War One
Some of them had left school at just 14 years old
Some only saw a banana for the first time when they were seven years old because when the war was on fruit like that couldn’t get to us from so far away
A lady had brought in a train set from the 1930s
One lady had photos on her phone of when she was a nurse in the 1950s
Another told of her memories of bombs being dropped when she was a child in Lincolnshire during
World War Two.
Year 6. We have chosen our first five History Ambassadors.
Mrs Maguire and the School Council organised a peace chain and activity to mark the International Day of Peace in September
See the photos below
Year 6 British Values
Year 6 have been practising their debating skills and discussing our British Values. We debated by ‘bobbing’ like MPs do in the Houses of Parliament. We discussed if it is right to give money to the homeless. We also had a report back from the Student Council meeting. See the photos below
Staff training on British values
How to incorporate and improve awareness of British Values.
Parliament Week 2018
Our pack has arrived and we are excited to get ready to celebrate our democracy
School competition for StPhilips100
StPhilips100 is the name we have given to a series of events commemorating centenaries in 2018.
We want logos that we can use for these events in the Autumn term…designed by you!
You have a choice of 4 themes for this:
Ø Women getting the vote
Ø The birth of the RAF
Ø The role played by anyone who served in World War One
Ø Something that combines all three of these
You do not have to be good at art for this as logos are simple ideas rather than complicated pictures.
Hand your logo into Ms Lund with your name and new year group by September 14th . There will be a prize for the best in each class.
National competitions of poetry and art to remember those who served in war
See the links below. Deadline is September 11th
Visiting the grave of Stanley Dyson who died in 1917 aged 26.
History Ambassadors took our wreath, left a remembrance marker and said a prayer.
School Council end of year display
Our own democracy in action
Children learn skills to help them be better, more active citizens.
They participate in decision making.
This year School Council has raised lots of money for a range of causes, had a visit from our MP and taken part in Sefton Learning Partnership activities to do with promoting healthy eating.
See the link below the photo for the Schools Council page
Rewarding effort and talent in our end of year celebrations
These are some of the many children who go the extra mile
The Unremembered St Philips100
Below are photos of our community event to recognise the contribution of the Labour Corps
Celebrating 100 years since the vote was extended to women for the first time and to working class men
Year 6 Maya History Day
Learning about and from other cultures
We did so many things!
Making block pyramids, playing pok a tok, eating Mexican food, debating, examining artefacts and playing an escape room game.
We also had time to write an essay examining the way of life of the Ancient Maya or why their civilisation ended.
Honouring those who have served our country
Valuing our freedoms
Here are the entries from all the year groups
Year 6 Faith in Action Day
Our Christian values re-enforce our British Values
We believe in Justice, Equality, Respect, Service…
Today we considered lots of aspects of our faith
We heard from visitors who talked about how they have put their Christian faith into action
We learned about how other faiths put their beliefs into action
We learned about street children and how groups like Tearfund help
We got to debate our own ideas about our beliefs
RAF100 School Competition
See the document below and take the time to enter so that we can put together a great remembrance display about the RAF
in our local area.
Years 6, 5 and 2 have been exploring Chinese Culture with Chinese teachers from the Confucius Institute from Edge Hill University. They have been learning words in Mandarin and making Chinese lanterns, paper cuts of Chinese characters and learning calligraphy and counting in Mandarin.
We have started our RAF100 project to remember the people who died in the early days of the RAF in World War One. This is part of a national project to design plane templates and write names of pilots and engineers on them.
We have been given 30 Scottish names and so we are designing Scottish themed templates.
We will also be remembering the local people who are buried in our Southport cemeteries.
Our Unremembered Wreath is now on display in London and they have taken this wonderful picture of it. We have made a second wreath to keep in school and use in our acts of remembrance.
Here is another picture showing how it is being displayed. It is in the Ministry for Housing and it is in the bottom right of the photo. It is photographed with left to right: Military Advisor Brigadier Krishnan, High Commission of India to the UK, Sally Sealey, MHCLG, and Lord Bourne, Minister for Communities, MHCLG.
Mutual Respect and Understanding...Autism
In worship today we had students from Presfield College.
They explained what it was like to have autism.
They told us about famous people with autism and what autistic people can find easy and difficult.
It helped us see that not everyone (including autistic people) learns and thinks in the same way.
Our Christian Values are part of our British Values
Values like compassion and justice.
This term our focus is service.
All religions believe in serving others in some way.
Here is one of our worship tables showing our focus on service.
Part of this is learning about figures in the past who can inspire us to serve others
and share the talents that we have.
People like Florence Nightingale and William Wilberforce had a
big impact on this country.
Today organisations like the Red Cross and Red Crescent serve worldwide.
Sikh gurdwaras provide free meals everyday in their communities.
Here in Southport Christians organise food banks and the local Soup Kitchen.
Today a small group of staff, parents and pupils visited Duke Street Cemetery where we said a prayer and laid a wreath in remembrance of three Southport people who served in the Labour Corp of World War One. Photos are below.
The stunning felt flower wreath has been made by Year 6 thanks to the hard work and creativity of Mrs Rothwell.
The largely forgotten history of the Labour Corp has provided a new challenge for our History Ambassadors. We held a Commonwealth Day Assembly to highlight the work and values of the Commonwealth. We have found out about our local Chinese Labour Corps whose graves are in Liverpool. As we have been studying Ancient Egypt we were also drawn to the role played by the Egyptian Labour Corps and the forgotten contribution of Muslims in this part of our history. Once we had access to the database for the graves of the Labour Corps, we visited our local cemetery to leave tokens of remembrance there. As one of the graves belonged to a Jewish family, we took pebbles with us rather than flowers as our act of rememberance.
Our ideas for the wreath were that the…
multi coloured flowers to symbolize the wide variety of unremembered from countries around the world, not just in the Commonwealth. We also made sure to include the yellow of our own hometown of Southport as well as colours like pink and purple to represent the women who served as volunteers in World War One.
buttons are all different shapes and sizes to show we are all unique.
flowers are the same shape because we were all fighting for the same cause.
butterflies are placed in North, South, East and West positions to represent the four corners of the world.
Watch this space for details of the Easter history competition....talk to relatives to find out if childhood in the 1960s and 1970s was really very different from your childhood today
Honouring and remembering those who have served their country.
Year 6 are helping to create a wreath for 'The Unremembered' (a Commonwealth project about the Labour Corps of World War One). We hope to take the wreath to Duke Street Cemetery where there are 6 graves of local people who served in this way.
Below are the graves of I Dannenberg, J Cullen and A Rimmer.
Year 6 are leading school worship for Commonwealth Day
This includes outlining what the Commonwealth is and how it grew out of the British Empire. It also shows why it is important for us today especially in terms of co-operation and campaigning on issues such as gender and racial equality.
Photos will follow below.
Here are some photos of entries into our half term Commonwealth Competitions.
Ancient Egyptians visit the Infants!
Year 6 History Ambassadors have been helping spread their love and knowledge of history again.
We have great History Ambassadors and helpers in Year 6 who volunteer to help others learn more about history. They are great role models for being active citizens. Today they hosted an exhibition called Hands on History for parents and children during Parents' Evening. This included a range of activities: Horrible History songs, costumed guides, books, games, timelines, artefacts, local history and photos of all the great activities classes undertake in history during the year.
Knowing our history is part of British Values.
Year 6 led a school worship time about the history of Britain since the Stone Age.
We finished with a prayer asking God to help us appreciate all the comforts that we have today.
For most of human history, most lives have been much harder than they are today.
This week we welcomed our local MP, Damien Moore.
He was given a tour of the school by two of our Year 6 History Ambassadors.
Year 6 got the opportunity to ask him questions. He was asked a range of questions.
What is it like being an MP?
How long do you work for in a week?
What can you do for Southport?
What is being done for the homeless?
What made you want to become an MP?
What is the best part of being an MP?
What kind of things do you debate about in Parliament?
He then visited the School Council who were busy analysing the Healthy Eating surveys.
The School Council organised for us to take part in Wacky Hair Day today as part of the Sefton Partnership, raising money for Alzheimer's research. Some photos are below
Mini competitions for February half term
Celebrate our Commonwealth
See the document below
A wonderful book we use to develop chronology and understanding of our country's history is 'A Street Through Time'...an extract is below
Have been busy with promoting fundraising such as Children in Need and more recently Go Orange for Muscular Dystrophy and Wacky Hair Day (as part of the Southport Learning Partnership's fundraising for Alzheimer's). They have also been busy getting classes to think about healthy living and to create posters to encourage people to be healthier.
We will be supporting Commonwealth Day on Monday 12th March.
See the website link below
This year marks 100 years since the vote in the UK was extended to ordinary working men and to some women for the first time. We will be marking this later in the year and taking part
in Equaliteas in July.
We have our winners for our Australia competition.
Five Year 6 pupils put a tremendous effort into their entries for this competition. Their work was inspiring and informative. In the photos below you can see four of them receiving their prizes in worship time today. There are also photos of their work and the PowerPoints that three of them did.
Well done and thank you to them all.
Our History Ambassadors are keeping busy in 2018.
They are great role models of how to be active and helpful citizens.
They have been visiting the Infant Classes in historical costumes so that the children can ask questions about who they are supposed to be and what life was like in the past.
Year 2 pupils come on Thursday to work with the Chronology Buddies and get a sticker for giving answers to questions about how a town grew from the Stone Age to now. They do other things too like castle jigsaws and spot the mistake in history pictures.
News of another History competition!
Being an active citizen is part of our British Values. This means that we take an interest in and participate in the world around us, even when no-one is telling us we have to do so.
Knowing the history of this country helps us to appreciate the world we live in now.
So, if you love history, take a look at the Epic Era competition on the website below.
We show respect by being grateful for the sacrifices others have made to defend our country and protect our freedoms. Year 6 have been learning about World War One. 1918 is the centenary year of the end of the war. To enter a great competition on this see the website below.
Part of British Values is showing mutual respect by helping other people. In the Autumn term we have done lots of fundraising. Just some examples of this are....we bought poppies for the British Legion, we raised money with Pudsey bear for Children in Need and here we are wearing our Christmas jumpers to raise money for Save the Children
The Commonwealth Games are in AUSTRALIA in 2018
See the document below
Year 1 enjoyed learning about voting
Year 6 made more use of the Parliamentary loan box. They had a series of mini debates with different pupils acting as the Speaker who chose who would speak next.
Our Parliament Week events have begun
Today (13th November) Year 6 started the week with an assembly about how Parliament works.
See below for photos and a report on it.
The pupils had all written their own speeches for the debate which took place in assembly.
Each day, the Juniors will vote on a different topic
See the photos below
Reception and the infants will do their own voting and have the Speaker's oufit and Parliamentary props to use as well.
Our first British Values exhibition has already taken place. Over one hundred visitors came to see what we do in school about this. Year 6 guides explained what they have been learning about politics, democracy and debating. They were fabulous ambassadors for our school and our values.
Visitors from local schools were very impressed. We had great feedback from staff from Bishop David Sheppard Primary School, Great Crosby RC Primary and St John's Primary in Crossens as well as visitors from High Schools like Birkdale and Greenbank.
Later this week, a team of pupils will lead worship time. This will be a Remembrance Worship and reflection time
Next Monday Year 6 will lead worship about how Parliament works, including a debate about the use of smart phones for primary age children.
Mrs Edward announced in worship today (3.1..17) which petition had won and why.
It is the Year 2 idea of decorating the canteen with a healthy food themed display.
Well done to Year 2 for outlining their idea so thoughtfully and working hard to get so many signatures.
Our "British Values...exploring democracy exhibition" took place last night. Parents, siblings and staff from other schools came and were guided round by Year 6 pupils. They placed poppies on our Remembrance Tree, voted in our Should primary age children be allowed smart phones? debate and took time to see what we do in this school to promote British Values. See below for photos.
Year 6 practising debating in the style of Parliament
Should primary age children be allowed to have smart phones?
The speaker chose who would speak.
Pupils bobbed to get attention to speak.
After the speeches they called out Aye or No to show their opinion.
They moved into division lobbies to show their view
The result of this vote was…
A resounding Aye! There were just 6 people who voted No.
The photo below shows the winners. they look very pleased!
Year 6 now have the chance to apply to become our official history/politics ambassadors.
Here are some of them collecting the resources they need to help them learn more British history, ready for a test after half term.
School Council Meeting 18.10.17...democracy in action
This was an exciting meeting as councillors counted up their signature totals. They have still to be verified but some look to have got over 80 signatures
Pupils from each group had been busy thinking of idea about how to improve the canteen on a budget of £50. Some year groups had put together quite detailed proposals. All had got signatures from their own class and most had got signatures from other classes and even staff.
Signatures are currently being verified! The petitions with the most signatures will be sent to Mrs Edward for her consideration. Just like with government petitions, she might call pupils to give more detail or explain their ideas more. She may then decide to adopt the ideas or she may decide not to! Just like with our government, if there are enough signatures, she will give a response to explain her decision.
After that, councillors discussed the school wide campaign for after half term and ideas for raising money for Children in Need.
Tell your councillor if you have an idea….Voice your View!! There are a four photos below. For more photos see the link to the School Council page.
Year 6 being buddies to reception children
The buddy assembly last week was Year 6’s opportunity to welcome their reception buddy into our school.
Year 6 help the reception children settle in and they act as role models to them. It brings the best out in everyone!
Year 6…the art of debate in Geography again. Year 6 debated what the future of the rainforest should be. In doing so they also practised the parliamentary process of ‘bobbing’ to catch the attention of the speaker to try and get a turn in the debate. They had to state their point and then explain it. Simple key words to help with this were…because….so that...if. Key Geography vocabulary included indigenous….habitat…deforestation…extinct….endangered…favelas…and more! See the photos below. After the debate they wrote extended balanced arguments about what should happen in the rainforest.
Remembrance is about mutual respect but also about appreciating our values of freedom
Remembrance Display 2017
A team of Year 6 and Year 4 pupils is putting together a display for Remembrance Day. Most families have some connection to people who served (or are still serving) in various wars. This is not just soldiers. Many women served in World War Two in many ways. They might have been Land Girls, or worked in factories making weapons or they might have looked after evacuees. There have been more recent conflicts such as The Falklands War or soldiers sent to Afghanistan. We’d like as many photos as possible for this display.
British Value…Mutual respect
Shirley Potts, one of our governors, came to spend a maths session with Year 6 and talk to them about what they have been doing recently. She has watched them grow up since Year 1. We discussed the visit of the Gang Man and visits to high schools. We also discussed about the responsibilities that come with being the oldest in the schools and the jobs that we are trusted to do.
We run competitions to encourage pupils to take a wider interest in the world around them.
In history competitions we have had mini movies, news reports, code breaking and posters.
Our summer holiday competition was to write reviews/projects about places pupils loved visiting this summer. The winners are pictured below with their prizes.
We have registered for Parliament Week 13th-19th November 2017
Learning about democracy
Mrs Lund has returned from the Houses of Parliament.
There were 66 teachers on the course
Below is the first follow up session Year 6 had about the course.
Some of their questions had been answered.
Have you ever got lost in the Houses of Parliament?
What made you want to become an MP?
What is the most exciting thing about Parliament?
Is it hard to be an MP?
What is the actual role of the Prime Minister?
How many times are laws checked before they are made?
How could we get rid of the House of Lords if we thought it was a good idea to do so?
We strive to ensure that our children are well prepared for the world outside. We aspire for them to be tolerant, respectful of other cultures and faiths, be law abiding citizens and have a real life handle on our democratic system and understand how they can influence that for the good of themselves and others.
Whilst we have an ongoing whole school plan to ensure that we teach British Values and "Britishness" across each year group, we also ensure that we respond to current social and political events in the life of our country and across the world.